RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA

INTRODUCTION

Retinitis Pigmentosa: Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a group of genetic disorders that affect the retina’s ability to respond to light, causing a slow loss of vision.

RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA PIGMENTOSA

If your vision is similar to the image on the left, it may be a sign that you are suffering from retinitis pigmentosa (RP). RP is a group of rare eye diseases that affect the retina and, over time, can cause the breakdown of the retina and result in a loss of vision. Individuals with RP experience a continuous decline in vision due to changes in the genetic material that controls the cells in the retina.

Comparison between the vision and anatomy of healthy eyes against retinitis pigmentosa.

SYMPTOMS

  • Loss of night vision that usually begins during childhood
  • Loss of side or peripheral vision where one struggles to see things out of the corner of their eye
  • Loss of color vision and sensitivity to bright light

WHAT CAUSE THE DISEASE? THE DISEASE?

Cell death mechanisms in Retinitis pigmentosa (RP).

This disease is mainly caused by changes in genes that lead to progressive loss of photoreceptor cells and also the outer nuclear layers. ​The destruction of light-sensing photoreceptor can be caused by common modes of cell death which are known as apoptosis, regulated necrosis, or autophagy.

​Apoptosis is considered the predominant mechanism in neurodegenerative diseases, including retinal degeneration. Regulated necrosis is characterized by the loss of cell membrane integrity and the release of its cytoplasmic contents while autophagy is a lysosome-mediated process that degenerates and recycles cell components.

​The figures show the illustration of the structure and pathways involved in cell death in RP. A depicts the structure of light sensing photoreceptor while B shows the apoptosis pathway. C displays the regulated necrosis pathway and D shows the autophagy pathway.

​CURRENT TREATMENTS TREATMENTS

Currently, Retinitis Pigmentosa is untreatable, and only vision aids, and rehabilitation programs can help people with RP make the most of their vision.

Treatment

Advantages

Disadvantages

Acetazolamide

Ease swelling in a tiny area at the center of the retina and improve vision

  • Dizziness, lightheadedness, or increased urination
  • Blurred vision, dry mouth, drowsiness, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or changes in taste

Vitamin A Palmitate

May slow retinitis pigmentosa a little each year

HIgh doses can be toxic

Sunglasses

  • Make the eyes less sensitive to light
  • Protect from harmful ultraviolet rays that may speed vision loss

Does not target the root of the cause

Retinal Implant

Could provide partial sight

  • Only gives partial recovery
  • Dependent on technology

WHAT WE OFFER? OFFER?

EXOSOME RESEARCH - CELLTIX CELLTIX

​​CelltiX is a type of extracellular vesicle from Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) manufactured in a cGMP-compliant facility. It is a novel form of a major paracrine factor released by MSCs into a culture medium, which plays an important role in a wide range of biological processes.

STEM CELL RESEARCH - CELLTIMAX CELLTIMAX

CelltiMax is a product derived from human umbilical cord-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs). The cells are cultured, then administered to the patient via intramuscular or intravenous injection.

The cells have low immunogenicity making them safe, well-tolerated and free of side effects. They have the ability to differentiate into specialized cells with specific functions for various parts of the body, and can reduce inflammation, repair, renew, regenerate, and replace damaged cells.

COMPARISON BETWEEN STEM CELLS AND EXOSOMES AND EXOSOMES

​CRITERIAS

​STEM CELLS

​EXOSOME

​Definition

Stem cells are unspecialized cells of the human body.

Extracellular vesicles, which is the medical term for tiny bubbles that are released from stem cells.

Function

Unique, can become any type of cell, and they act as both building blocks and repair mechanisms in your body.

Carry genetic information and proteins to cells throughout your body, and they create paths for communication between cells.

​Origins

Donor stem cells are placed in your body and are guided into becoming specific cells in the body to replace and repair diseased cells.

Exosomes are extracted from donated human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and sterilized.

​Growth Factors

Less amount of growth factors compared to exosomes.

Exosomes contain nearly three times the amount of growth factors. More growth factors mean a better ability to restore and revitalize target cells.

​Administration

  • IV Stem Cell Therapy (Intravenous administration)
  • Intrathecal (directly into the spinal canal)
  • Site injections into problem areas (Knee, hips, hands, etc)
  • Intravenous (IV) therapy
  • Direct injection in the treatment area​

BENEFITS OF OUR TREATMENTS? OUR TREATMENTS?

STEM CELL RESEARCH

EXOSOME RESEARCH

Accelerates healing

Reduced inflammation

Eliminates pain and inflammation

Supports metabolic function

Avoids the need for surgery

Improves brain health

Enhances collagen production

Reduces chronic pain

Decrease nerve damage

Enhances tissue regeneration

Less invasive procedure

Boost immune health

HOW IT WORKS? WORKS?

retinitis-pigmentosa-celltimaxcelltix-diagram-5

The interactions between MSCs, exosomes, and the retinal environment.

Stem Cell Research (CelltiMax)

Exosome Research (CelltiX)

  • The defining characteristics of a stem cell are continuous self-renewal and the ability to differentiate into a specialized adult cell type thus, they can be used to generate every tissue in the human body
  • When in an appropriate environment, these stem cells survive and differentiate into critical retinal cells. They also develop a retina-like organizational structure and exhibit functional characteristics of full-fledged photoreceptors and outer retinal cells
  • Exosome research is a form of regenerative medicine where exosomes are inserted into a patient and the latest research findings have proven exosome research is capable of ameliorating photoreceptor loss thus, enhancing visual responsiveness
  • Direct administration of exosomes showed delayed photoreceptor degeneration, preserved visual function, prevented thinning of the outer nuclear layer (ONL), and decreased apoptosis of photoreceptors
  • Exosomes contain specific lipids such as cholesterol and phosphatidylserine that protect from degeneration

TALK TO US

​If you feel we might be able to offer meaningful improvement to both your condition and your quality of life, then please reach out to schedule a free consultation with one of our in-house clinical experts. We offer consultations in both Malay and English. 

To schedule your consultation, click the button below

​During your consultation, we will: we will:

Review your medical history & recent evaluations

Explore what your treatment package might look like​

Answer any questions you have about us

Answer any questions you have about the therapies

Discuss practical next steps, ​if you feel we can effectively treat you

Review your medical history & recent evaluations

Explore what your treatment package might look like​

Answer any questions you have about us

Answer any questions you have about the therapies

Discuss practical next steps,
​if you feel we can effectively treat you