MACULAR DEGENERATION

INTRODUCTION

​​Macular Degeneration: Macular degeneration is a medical illness that causes blurred or no vision in the center of the visual field.

MACULAR DEGENERATION

Macular degeneration, also known as age-related macular degeneration (AMD or ARMD), is a progressive loss of vision in the center of the visual field. In its early stages, there may be no signs of the condition. However, over time, some people may experience a gradual decline in eyesight, which can affect one or both eyes. While it does not lead to total blindness, loss of central vision can make it difficult to perform everyday tasks such as recognizing faces, driving, reading, etc. Visual hallucinations may also occur, but they do not indicate a mental condition.

Macular degeneration is more common in older adults. Risk factors include smoking and genetic factors. It is caused by damage to the retina’s macula. A comprehensive eye exam is used to make the diagnosis, and the severity is classified as early, middle, or late. The late stage is further divided into “dry” and “wet” forms, with the dry form accounting for 90% of cases.

SYMPTOMS OF MACULAR DEGENERATION  MACULAR DEGENERATION 

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​The most common symptoms of age-related macular degeneration are as follows. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:

  • Blurry or fuzzy vision
  • Difficulty recognizing familiar faces
  • Straight lines appear wavy
  • A dark, empty area or blind spot appears in the center of the vision
  • Loss of central vision, which is necessary for driving, reading, recognizing faces, and performing close-up work


One of the most typical early symptoms of age-related macular degeneration is the appearance of drusen, which are small yellow deposits in the retina. It could indicate that the eye is on the point of developing more serious age-related macular degeneration. During an eye exam, your doctor will be able to see these.

Age-related macular degeneration symptoms may resemble those of other eye disorders. Consult an eye care specialist for a diagnosis.

WHAT CAUSE THE DISEASE? THE DISEASE?

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Illustration for Normal Eye , Dry and Wet of Macular Degeneration

​The macula, a region of the retina important for clear vision in the direct line of sight, is affected by dry macular degeneration. Over time, the tissue in the macula may shrink and lose vision-related cells. The exact cause of dry macular degeneration is not known, but research suggests that it may be influenced by a combination of genetic and environmental factors such as smoking, obesity, and diet. As the eye ages, the condition worsens.

The two primary types of age-related macular degeneration have different causes:

Dry: This is the most common type, affecting about 80% of people with AMD. Its exact cause is not known, but genetic and environmental factors are thought to be involved. Dry AMD is believed to be caused by age-related damage to a crucial support membrane beneath the retina.

Wet: This type is less common but usually results in more severe visual loss than dry AMD. Wet AMD is the leading cause of severe blindness. It develops when irregular blood vessels form beneath the retina, which can leak fluid and blood. As a result, wet AMD can cause a large blind spot in the centre of the visual field.

​CURRENT TREATMENTS TREATMENTS

There is currently no cure for dry, age-related macular degeneration. However, vision treatment options and low-vision equipment can be used to improve visual abilities, learn new ways to do daily activities, and adapt to life with age-related macular degeneration.

The primary treatment for wet AMD is the injection of anti-VEGF medicines. VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) is a protein that promotes the growth of new blood vessels. High levels of VEGF in the eye have been linked to the formation of abnormal blood vessels, which cause much of the damage in wet AMD. Anti-VEGF medications are used to inhibit the growth of these abnormal blood vessels and restore vision in many patients.

Anti-VEGF injections have been shown to improve visual acuity in some patients. The drugs are delivered by injecting them directly into the affected eye. Although it may sound intimidating, patients are generally comfortable during the procedure as it is performed with a small needle and under the supervision of numbing (anesthetic) eye drops. Anti-VEGF treatment is often given on a regular basis and may require repeated injections to maintain the treatment effect. Your retinal doctor will discuss the optimal treatment regimen for you. Other therapies, such as laser therapy, may be used in certain patients if necessary.

WHAT WE OFFER? OFFER?

EXOSOME RESEARCH - CELLTIX CELLTIX

​​CelltiX is a type of extracellular vesicle from Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) manufactured in a cGMP-compliant facility. It is a novel form of a major paracrine factor released by MSCs into a culture medium, which plays an important role in a wide range of biological processes.

STEM CELL RESEARCH - CELLTIMAX CELLTIMAX

CelltiMax is a product derived from human umbilical cord-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs). The cells are cultured, then administered to the patient via intramuscular or intravenous injection.

The cells have low immunogenicity making them safe, well-tolerated and free of side effects. They have the ability to differentiate into specialized cells with specific functions for various parts of the body, and can reduce inflammation, repair, renew, regenerate, and replace damaged cells.

COMPARISON BETWEEN STEM CELLS AND EXOSOMES STEM CELLS AND EXOSOMES

​CRITERIAS

​STEM CELLS

​EXOSOME

​Definition

Stem cells are unspecialized cells of the human body.

Extracellular vesicles, which is the medical term for tiny bubbles that are released from stem cells.

Function

Unique, can become any type of cell, and they act as both building blocks and repair mechanisms in your body.

Carry genetic information and proteins to cells throughout your body, and they create paths for communication between cells.

​Origins

Donor stem cells are placed in your body and are guided into becoming specific cells in the body to replace and repair diseased cells.

Exosomes are extracted from donated human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and sterilized.

​Growth Factors

Less amount of growth factors compared to exosomes.

Exosomes contain nearly three times the amount of growth factors. More growth factors mean a better ability to restore and revitalize target cells.

​Administration

  • IV Stem Cell Therapy (Intravenous administration)
  • Intrathecal (directly into the spinal canal)
  • Site injections into problem areas (Knee, hips, hands, etc)
  • Intravenous (IV) therapy
  • Direct injection in the treatment area​

BENEFITS OF OUR TREATMENTS OUR TREATMENTS

STEM CELL RESEARCH

EXOSOME RESEARCH

Accelerates healing

Reduced inflammation

Eliminates pain and inflammation

Supports metabolic function

Avoids the need for surgery

Improves brain health

Enhances collagen production

Reduces chronic pain

Decrease nerve damage

Enhances tissue regeneration

Less invasive procedure

Boost immune health

HOW IT WORKS? WORKS?

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 Display Mesenchymal Stem Cells for The Treatment of Retinal Diseases

Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) have been extensively researched for their potential in treating a variety of retinal diseases. Their therapeutic potential is due to their ability to differentiate into multiple lineages and secrete a variety of immunomodulatory, anti-angiogenic, and neurotrophic factors. Several studies have reported on the role of MSCs in retinal repair and regeneration, with MSC-secreted factors preventing retinal degeneration and improving retinal morphology and function.

MSCs also donate mitochondria to help retinal cells function, and exosomes secreted by MSCs have been shown to have anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties. Based on promising preclinical results, several clinical trials are being conducted to investigate the potential benefits of MSCs for the treatment of retinal diseases. 

TALK TO US

​If you feel we might be able to offer meaningful improvement to both your condition and your quality of life, then please reach out to schedule a free consultation with one of our in-house clinical experts. We offer consultations in both Malay and English. 

To schedule your consultation, click the button below

​During your consultation, we will: we will:

Review your medical history & recent evaluations

Explore what your treatment package might look like​

Answer any questions you have about us

Answer any questions you have about the therapies

Discuss practical next steps, ​if you feel we can effectively treat you

Review your medical history & recent evaluations

Explore what your treatment package might look like​

Answer any questions you have about us

Answer any questions you have about the therapies

Discuss practical next steps,
​if you feel we can effectively treat you