Pituitary disorders: Pituitary problems typically result from the pituitary gland being either overactive or underactive.

Example of how hypothalamus and pituitary glands regulate bodily functions.


The pituitary gland, which is about the size of a pea, is located near the base of the brain, behind the bridge of your nose. The hypothalamus, a different region of the brain, is located not far from the pituitary gland.

The human body has systems that constantly monitor changes and other vital functions. The pituitary gland and the hypothalamus are a part of some of these systems.​

​The hypothalamus regulates bodily functioning by receiving information from a variety of sources. One of the ways the hypothalamus accomplishes this is by regulating the pituitary gland and interacting with it via its own hormones.

These hormones are transported to the pituitary gland, where they serve as a cue for the pituitary to start producing one or more of its hormones. The endocrine glands that the pituitary hormones are targeting are then stimulated to create their own hormones. These locally made hormones are what actually regulate your body.


Position of the pituitary gland in the brain.

OA symptoms frequently appear gradually and get worse with time. Signs and symptoms of OA include:

  1. Pain – Affected joints may pain while moving or afterward.
  2. Stiffness – Joint stiffness may be most apparent when you first wake up or after being inactive.
  3. Tenderness – When you put light pressure on or near your joint, it could feel tender.
  4. Loss of flexibility – You might not be able to fully extend the range of motion in your joint.
  5. Grating sensation – May be experienced while using the joint, and you may also hear popping or cracking.
  6. Bone spurs – Bone spurs can develop around the afflicted joint; these feel like hard lumps of excess bone.
  7. Swelling – Inflammation of the soft tissues around the joint may be to blame for this.


Depending on the illness and affected hormone, specific symptoms can vary. The location and size of a tumor also matter. Typical signs include:

  • Anxiety or depression
  • Diabetes
  • Hair loss
  • High blood pressure
  • Irregular menstrual periods
  • Unexpected breast milk production
  • Low energy or low sex drive
  • Stunted growth or unusual growth spurts
  • Unexplained weight gain
  • Vision changes


​​Pituitary diseases are primarily brought on by non-cancerous pituitary tumors, which make your body produce too much or too little of a certain hormone.

Additionally typical causes of pituitary issues include:

  • Head injury
  • Bleeding in or near the pituitary gland
  • Some medications and cancer treatments


Treatment is not necessary for many pituitary tumors. Treatment is based on the type of tumor, its size, and how deep into the brain it has spread. Age and general health are also factors that need to be taken into consideration.

Radiation therapy
  • Stereotactic radiosurgery
  • External beam radiation
  • Intensity modulated radiation therapy
  • Proton beam therapy 
  • Endoscopic transnasal transsphenoidal approach
  • Transcranial approach (craniotomy)
  • Treatment with medications may help to block excess hormone secretion and sometimes shrink certain types of pituitary tumors

Type of Disorder


Prolactin-secreting tumors (prolactinomas)

  • Cabergoline
  • Bromocriptine (Parlodel, Cycloset)

ACTH-producing tumors (Cushing syndrome)

  • Ketoconazole, mitotane (Lysodren) and metyrapone (Metopirone)
  • ​​Osilodrostat (Isturisa)
  • Mifepristone (Korlym, Mifeprex) 

Growth hormone-secreting tumors

  • Somatostatin analogs such as octreotide (Sandostatin, Mycapssa, Sandostatin LAR Depot)
  • Lanreotide (Somatuline Depot)
  • Pegvisomant (Somavert)


Side Effects

  • Reduce prolactin secretion
  • Decrease tumor size
  • Drowsiness, dizziness, nausea, nasal stuffiness, vomiting, diarrhea or constipation, confusion, and depression
  • Some people may acquire compulsive habits, such as gambling
  • Limit the adrenal gland’s excessive cortisol production
  • Reduces the production of cortisol
  • Inhibits the tissue-damaging effects of cortisol
  • Severe pulse irregularity caused by a cardiac conduction issue
  • Fatigue, nausea, vomiting, headaches, muscle aches, high blood pressure, low potassium and swelling
  • Reduce growth hormone production and may cause the tumor to shrink
  • Inhibit effects of excess growth hormone
  • Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach pain, dizziness, headache and pain at the site of injection
  • May also cause gallstones and worsen diabetes mellitus



Scitron is a Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs), derived from human umbilical cords. Upon treatment, the cultured cells are injected intramuscularly or intravenously into the patient. The cells are characterized by low immunogenicity, making them very safe, tolerable, and free of side effects.




The potential cell-therapeutic strategies for treatment of hypopituitarism.

​​As shown in Figure (A), pituitary deficit can be corrected by inducing local stem cells in the pituitary to multiply and develop into the desired cell types. As an alternative, stem cells from pituitary tissue can be extracted, grown in a dish, and then either transplanted directly into the hypophysiotropic region beneath the hypothalamus or first differentiated and purified in a dish. The desired cell type can be created by transdifferentiating adult pituitary cells using the same methods.

As described in Figure B, Pluripotent stem cells, such as embryonic stem cells (ESC) and iPSC, may be injected into the hypophysiotropic region of a patient with hypopituitarism, where they can develop to replace the damaged endocrine cell type. However, due to their tremendous ability for proliferation, the potent ESC and iPSC may result in the development of tumors. To get around this issue, ESC and iPSC could be differentiated in vitro first, followed by the isolation of the desired hormonal cell type and transplantation of only the pure cell type.


If you believe that our treatment options may be able to improve your condition and enhance your quality of life, please contact us to schedule a complimentary consultation with one of our in-house clinical specialists. Our consultations are available in both Malay and English language.

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​During your consultation, we will: we will:

Review your medical history & recent evaluations

Explore what your treatment package might look like​

Answer any questions you have about us

Answer any questions you have about the therapies

Discuss practical next steps, ​if you feel we can effectively treat you

Review your medical history & recent evaluations

Explore what your treatment package might look like​

Answer any questions you have about us

Answer any questions you have about the therapies

Discuss practical next steps,
​if you feel we can effectively treat you