As shown in Figure (A), pituitary deficit can be corrected by inducing local stem cells in the pituitary to multiply and develop into the desired cell types. As an alternative, stem cells from pituitary tissue can be extracted, grown in a dish, and then either transplanted directly into the hypophysiotropic region beneath the hypothalamus or first differentiated and purified in a dish. The desired cell type can be created by transdifferentiating adult pituitary cells using the same methods.
As described in Figure B, Pluripotent stem cells, such as embryonic stem cells (ESC) and iPSC, may be injected into the hypophysiotropic region of a patient with hypopituitarism, where they can develop to replace the damaged endocrine cell type. However, due to their tremendous ability for proliferation, the potent ESC and iPSC may result in the development of tumors. To get around this issue, ESC and iPSC could be differentiated in vitro first, followed by the isolation of the desired hormonal cell type and transplantation of only the pure cell type.