PARKINSON'S DISEASE

INTRODUCTION

Parkinson’s disease: Parkinson’s disease is a brain disorder that affects an individual’s motor system.

PARKINSON'S DISEASE PARKINSON'S DISEASE

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, after Alzheimer’s disease. It is a progressive disorder caused by the death of nerve cells in the brain, leading to damage in the central nervous system over time. 

The development of PD is thought to be a result of complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors, which are not yet fully understood.

SYMPTOMS OF PARKINSON'S DISEASE

The four main symptoms of Parkinson’s disease:

    • Tremor in the hands, arms, legs, jaw, or head
    • Muscle stiffness, where muscle remains contracted for a long time
    • Slow movement
    • Trouble in balance and coordination which sometimes can lead to falls

Other symptoms that may also be present:

    • Emotional changes such as becoming depressed
    • Difficulty in swallowing, chewing, and speaking
    • Urinary problems or constipation
    • Skin problems

WHAT CAUSES THE DISEASE? THE DISEASE?

Parkinson’s disease is caused by the gradual loss of cells in the substantia nigra of the brain, which is responsible for producing dopamine, a chemical messenger that coordinates activity between different regions of the brain.
​The insufficient levels of dopamine in the striatum leads to the nerve cells in this region firing uncontrollably, making it difficult for the individual to control their movements.

As the disease progresses, other areas of the brain and nervous system also degenerate, resulting in more severe movement disorders.

The visualization of the dopamine pathway affected in Parkinson’s patients

​MSCs have clinical applications for treating avascular necrosis of the hip. Avascular necrosis of the hip is a pathological condition caused by a disruption in blood supply to the femoral head. MSCs can be used to supplement the core decompression procedure, which is designed to relieve intraosseous pressure while also promoting new bone formation and angiogenesis. Some early studies using whole bone marrow transplantation have found a link between the number of osteoprogenitor cells and the outcome.

Illustration of the comparison between healthy and implicated pathways for α-syn toxicity

CURRENT TREATMENTS TREATMENTS

Non-oral therapies:
    • Apomorphine
    • Duodopa​
Medication:
    • Levodopa
    • Dopamine agonists
    • Monoamine oxidase-B inhibitors
    • Catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitors​
Surgery
Deep brain stimulation

Limitations of current treatment for Parkinson’s disease

WHAT WE OFFER? OFFER?

EXOSOME RESEARCH - CELLTIX CELLTIX

CelltiX is a type of extracellular vesicle from Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) manufactured in a cGMP-compliant facility.

It is a novel form of a major paracrine factor released by MSCs into a culture medium, which plays an important role in a wide range of biological processes.

STEM CELL RESEARCH - CELLTIMAX CELLTIMAX

CelltiMax is a product derived from human umbilical cord-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs). The cells are cultured, then administered to the patient via intramuscular or intravenous injection. They have the ability to differentiate into specialized cells with specific functions for various parts of the body, and can reduce inflammation, repair, renew, regenerate, and replace damaged cells.

COMPARISON BETWEEN STEM CELLS AND EXOSOMES AND EXOSOMES

CRITERIAS

STEM CELLS

EXOSOMES

Definition

​​Stem cells are unspecialized cells of the human body.

 

​​Extracellular vesicles, which is the medical term for tiny bubbles that are released from stem cells.

Function

​Unique, can become any type of cell, and they act as both building blocks and repair mechanisms in your body.

​Carry genetic information and proteins to cells throughout your body, and they create paths for communication between cells.

Origins

​Donor stem cells are placed in your body and are guided into becoming specific cells in the body to replace and repair diseased cells.

​Exosomes are extracted from donated human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and sterilized.

Growth Factors

​Less amount of growth factors compared to exosomes.

​Exosomes contain nearly three times the amount of growth factors. More growth factors mean a better ability to restore and revitalize target cells

Administration

  • ​IV Stem Cell Research(Intravenous administration)
  • Intrathecal (directly into the spinal canal)
  • Site injections into problem areas (Knee, hips, hands, etc)
  • Intravenous (IV) research
  • Direct injection in the treatment area​

BENEFITS OF OUR TREATMENTS OUR TREATMENTS

STEM CELL RESEARCH

EXOSOME RESEARCH

​Improve bodies’ natural healing abilities

High stabililty

Modulate the immune system

Low toxicity and immunogenicity

Locate and reduce areas of inflammation

High penetration

​Replace damaged and diseased cells

Enhanced delivery efficiency

HOW IT WORKS? WORKS?

STEM CELL RESEARCH

Stem cell research mainly aims to replace the destroyed brain cells in individuals with Parkinson’s disease with healthy, undifferentiated stem cells.

​The stem cells then differentiate into brain cells and aid in regulating dopamine levels thus, this can relieve many symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.

Overview of how stem cell research helps treat Parkinson’s disease 

How stem cells can help decrease and repair damages caused by neurodegenerative diseases

EXOSOME RESEARCH

Exosome research on the other hand, mainly focuses on reducing intracellular α-syn levels.

​Alternatively, levels of α-syn proteins are reduced through fusion with lysosomes for degradation or encompassed into autophagosomes and then degraded via the traditional autophagic pathway following fusion with lysosomes to produce the autophagolysosome. In addition, amphisomes can also be degraded by the lysosome.

Overview of how exosome research helps lower levels of a-syn proteins

TALK TO US

​If you feel we might be able to offer meaningful improvement to both your condition and your quality of life, then please reach out to schedule a free consultation with one of our in-house clinical experts. We offer consultations in both Malay and English. 

To schedule your consultation, click the button below

​During your consultation, we will: we will:

Review your medical history & recent evaluations

Explore what your treatment package might look like​

Answer any questions you have about us

Answer any questions you have about the therapies

Discuss practical next steps, ​if you feel we can effectively treat you

Review your medical history & recent evaluations

Explore what your treatment package might look like​

Answer any questions you have about us

Answer any questions you have about the therapies

Discuss practical next steps,
​if you feel we can effectively treat you