NEURONAL DAMAGE

INTRODUCTION

​The term “brain damage” refers to injury to the brain brought on by a variety of circumstances, including head trauma, insufficient oxygenation, infections, or cerebral haemorrhage. A behavioural or functional anomaly could be connected to this harm.

The anatomy of brain

NEURONAL DAMAGE NEURONAL DAMAGE

Neurotrauma, brain damage, or brain injury are terms used to describe the loss or degeneration of brain cells (BI). There are numerous internal and external factors that might harm the brain. The phrase “brain injury” generally refers to severe, consistent trauma-related damage.

Neurons are vulnerable to tearing, cutting, and pressure because they are fragile. A damaged neuron can stop impulses from entering and exiting the brain, affecting muscle control or causing numbness in the affected area. Nerve damage can have an impact on the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves.

TYPES OF NEURONAL DAMAGE NEURONAL DAMAGE

  • Traumatic brain injury and acquired brain injury are the two different types of brain damage. Both interfere with the brain’s regular operations.
    • Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is brought on by an outside force that shifts the brain inside the skull or harms the skull, such as a blow to the head. The brain suffers as a result of this
    • Acquired brain injury (ABI) takes place at the molecular level. The most frequent association is with cerebral pressure. This might result from a tumour. Or it might be brought on by a neurological condition, such as a stroke

BENEFITS OF OUR TREATMENTS OUR TREATMENTS

Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

​The following are examples of mild traumatic brain injury symptoms and signs:

TYPE OF SYMPTOMS

EXAMPLE

Physical symptoms

    • Headache
    • Nausea or vomiting
    • Fatigue or drowsiness
    • Problems with speech
    • Dizziness or loss of balance

Sensory symptoms

    • Sensory difficulties, such as impaired vision, ringing in the ears, a poor taste in the mouth or changes in the capacity to smell
    • Sensitivity to sound or light

Behavioural, cognitive, or mental symptoms

    • Loss of consciousness 
    • Being dazed, confused or disoriented
    • Memory or concentration problems
    • Mood changes 
    • Feeling depressed or anxious
    • Difficulty sleeping
    • Sleeping more than usual

Damage to The Brain That Range From Mild to Severe

Any of the warning signs and symptoms of a minor injury, as well as the following signs and symptoms that may arise in the hours to days following a head injury, can indicate moderate to severe traumatic brain injuries:

TYPE OF SYMPTOMS

EXAMPLE

Physical symptoms

    • Loss of consciousness
    • Persistent headache
    • Repeated vomiting 
    • Dilation of  pupils of the eyes
    • Clear fluids draining from the nose or ears
    • Inability to awaken from sleep
    • Weakness or numbness in fingers and toes
    • Loss of coordination

Behavioural, cognitive, or mental symptoms

    • Profound confusion
    • Agitation, combativeness or other unusual behavior
    • Slurred speech
    • Coma and other disorders of consciousness

BENEFITS OF OUR TREATMENTS OUR TREATMENTS

STEM CELL THERAPY

EXOSOME THERAPY

​Improve bodies’ natural healing abilities

High stabililty

Modulate the immune system

Low toxicity and immunogenicity

Locate and reduce areas of inflammation

High penetration

​Replace damaged and diseased cells

Enhanced delivery efficiency

WHAT CAUSES THE DISEASE? THE DISEASE?

Causes of traumatic brain injury include:

    • Car accidents
    • Blows to the head
    • Sports injuries
    • Falls or accidents
    • Physical violence​

Causes of acquired brain injury include:

    • Poisoning or exposure to toxic substances
    • Infection
    • Strangulation, choking, or drowning
    • Stroke
    • Tumors
    • Neurological illnesses

CURRENT TREATMENTS? TREATMENTS?

TYPE OF TREATMENT

EXPLANATION

Surgery 

Surgical intervention to prevent further brain damage, such as​

    • Hemostasis removal (clotted blood)
    • Delete any harmed or dead brain tissue.
    • Fix cranial fractures
    • Relieve the pressure inside the head

Medications

    • Anti-anxiety drug to reduce jitteriness and dread.
    • Anticoagulants that enhance blood flow and prevent blood clots.
    • Seizure prevention with anticonvulsants.
    • Antidepressants are used to treat mood fluctuations and the symptoms of depression.
    • Diuretics can assist eliminate fluid from the body that could raise the pressure inside the brain.
    • To relax tense muscles and minimize muscle spasms, use muscle relaxants.
    • Awakening and attention-boosting stimulants.

Rehabilitation therapies

    • Physical therapy
    •  Occupational therapy 
    • Speech therapy 
    • Psychological therapy
    • Vocational guidance 
    •  Cognitive therapy

WHAT WE OFFER? OFFER?

EXOSOME THERAPY - CELLTIX CELLTIX

CelltiX is a type of extracellular vesicle from Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) manufactured in a cGMP-compliant facility.

It is a novel form of a major paracrine factor released by MSCs into a culture medium, which plays an important role in a wide range of biological processes.

STEM CELL THERAPY - CELLTIMAX CELLTIMAX

CelltiMax is a product derived from human umbilical cord-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs). The cells are cultured, then administered to the patient via intramuscular or intravenous injection. They have the ability to differentiate into specialized cells with specific functions for various parts of the body, and can reduce inflammation, repair, renew, regenerate, and replace damaged cells.

COMPARISON BETWEEN STEM CELLS AND EXOSOMES AND EXOSOMES

CRITERIAS

STEM CELLS

EXOSOMES

Definition

​​Stem cells are unspecialized cells of the human body.

 

​​Extracellular vesicles, which is the medical term for tiny bubbles that are released from stem cells.

Function

​Unique, can become any type of cell, and they act as both building blocks and repair mechanisms in your body.

​Carry genetic information and proteins to cells throughout your body, and they create paths for communication between cells.

Origins

​Donor stem cells are placed in your body and are guided into becoming specific cells in the body to replace and repair diseased cells.

​Exosomes are extracted from donated human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and sterilized.

Growth Factors

​Less amount of growth factors compared to exosomes.

​Exosomes contain nearly three times the amount of growth factors. More growth factors mean a better ability to restore and revitalize target cells

Administration

  • ​IV Stem Cell Therapy (Intravenous administration)
  • Intrathecal (directly into the spinal canal)
  • Site injections into problem areas (Knee, hips, hands, etc)
  • Intravenous (IV) therapy
  • Direct injection in the treatment area​

BENEFITS OF OUR TREATMENTS OUR TREATMENTS

STEM CELL THERAPY

EXOSOME THERAPY

​Improve bodies’ natural healing abilities

High stabililty

Modulate the immune system

Low toxicity and immunogenicity

Locate and reduce areas of inflammation

High penetration

​Replace damaged and diseased cells

Enhanced delivery efficiency

HOW IT WORKS? WORKS?

The activities of MSCs aid in the regeneration of neurons in neurological disorders

Stem cell therapy
Numerous preclinical studies show that the use of MSC in several experimental models of TBI (traumatic brain injury) can handle various disease pathology characteristics. TBI-induced motor and cognitive impairments in mice were reduced when MSCs were injected directly into the damaged brain or administered by IV or IA.

According to the experimental results, administering MSC therapy to TBI rats and mice stimulated the wounded brain to produce trophic factors that supported neurogenesis, neuroprotection, and neural healing. MSC treatments are better at controlling inflammation. In the brains of TBI rats, Lin and colleagues showed that MSC implantation decreased proinflammatory genes and increased anti-inflammatory genes.

Exosome therapy
Exosomes released from MSCs appear to have a similar effect to their counterparts, according to recent research. MSC exosome intravenous infusion dramatically reduces motor impairments and enhances spatial memory in TBI rats by encouraging endogenous neurogenesis and angiogenesis.

​Recent research has demonstrated that the secretome of IV-infused MSCs can reduce neuroinflammation by restricting the release of proinflammatory cytokines, controlling microglia polarisation, and reducing neural cell death. In a different study, MSC-derived exosomes in TBI rats reduced neuronal damage and aided functional recovery following brain insulation by preventing microglia proinflammatory activation.

TALK TO US

​If you feel we might be able to offer meaningful improvement to both your condition and your quality of life, then please reach out to schedule a free consultation with one of our in-house clinical experts. We offer consultations in both Malay and English. 

To schedule your consultation, click the button below

​During your consultation, we will: we will:

Review your medical history & recent evaluations

Explore what your treatment package might look like​

Answer any questions you have about us

Answer any questions you have about the therapies

Discuss practical next steps, ​if you feel we can effectively treat you

Review your medical history & recent evaluations

Explore what your treatment package might look like​

Answer any questions you have about us

Answer any questions you have about the therapies

Discuss practical next steps,
​if you feel we can effectively treat you