​DIABETES MELLITUS

INTRODUCTION

Diabetes mellitus: Diabetes is a common chronic illness, a type of metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia where levels of sugar in the blood are too high. Those with diabetes are also at risk of hypoglycaemia which is when the blood sugar level is too low.   

DIABETES MELLITUS DIABETES MELLITUS

Diabetes is mainly caused by insufficient secretion of insulin or resistance towards the insulin and is divided into three types: type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes.


Type 1 diabetes is known as insulin-dependent, as patients with this type of diabetes require daily insulin administration due to insufficient endogenous insulin as a result of autoimmune destruction on pancreatic β cells.


Type 2 diabetes is non-insulin dependent and is due to the body’s ineffective use of the insulin produced. This type of diabetes is mostly the result of being overweight, obesity, as well as lack of physical activity.
Gestational diabetes is caused by hyperglycemia in the blood glucose levels where the values exceed normal but are still insufficient to be diagnosed as diabetic and occurs during pregnancy.

SYMPTOMS SYMPTOMS

WHAT CAUSES THE DISEASE? THE DISEASE?

The normal use of glucose in non-diabetic state.

Normal physiology in non-diabetic individuals is characterized by the pancreas secreting digestive enzymes and hormones such as glucagon and insulin into the bloodstream to regulate glucose levels in the body. The release of insulin allows glucose to enter cells in the body, specifically muscle and liver cells, where it is then metabolized to produce energy. When the level of insulin is high, the liver stops its production of glucose and stores it in other forms until needed. When blood glucose levels are low, glucagon is secreted instead in order to promote the release of glucose stored in the liver.

The difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

Pathology of type 1 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is caused by an autoimmune reaction where the individual’s immune system destroys the pancreatic beta cells, which are the cells that produce insulin. Hence, the production of insulin is stopped.

Pathology of type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes develops when either the body does not produce sufficient insulin or the cells ignore the insulin. This normally starts as insulin resistance. This disorder occurs when the cells do not use insulin properly, and as the need for insulin rises, the pancreas becomes unable to produce it, resulting in the accumulation of glucose in the blood instead.

CURRENT TREATMENTS TREATMENTS

DRAG

ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

Insulin and Analogues

  • Adequate lowering blood glucose
  • Antioxidant
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Anti-platelet
  • Anti-hyperlipidemic
  • Hypoglycaemia
  • Requires continuous injection subcutaneously
  • Requires regular monitoring

Biguanides

  • Adequate lowering blood glucose
  • Less chance of hypoglycaemia
  • Less cost
  • Risk of :
    1. lactic acidosis
    2. heart failure
    3. hepatic cirrhosis
    4. sepsis

Sulfonylureas and glinides

  • Adequate lowering blood glucose
  • Less invasive as oral route is implemented
  • Cardiovascular complications
  • Hypoglycemia

Sodium Glucose Co Transporter Inhibitor

  • Moderate glucose lowering
  • Less hypoglycemia
  • Glycosuria
  • UTI

DPP-4 Inhibitor

  • Moderate glucose lowering
  • Increased hepatic glucose production
  • Weight gain
  • Hypoglycemia

GLP-1 Agonist

  • Adequate lowering blood glucose
  • No hypglycemia
  • Weight loss
  • GIT
  • Pancreatic side effects

Alpha-glucosidase Inhibitor

  • Mild blood glucose lowering
  • No hypglycemia
  • Post-prandial hyperglycemia
  • GIT problems

​WHAT WE OFFER? WE OFFER?

CELLULAR RESEARCH - SCITRON SCITRON

Scitron is a Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs), derived from human umbilical cords. Upon treatment, the cultured cells are injected intramuscularly or intravenously into the patient. The cells are characterized by low immunogenicity, making them very safe, tolerable, and free of side effects.

STEM CELL RESEARCH - CELLTIMAX CELLTIMAX

CelltiMax is a product derived from human umbilical cord-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs). The cells are cultured, then administered to the patient via intramuscular or intravenous injection. They have the ability to differentiate into specialized cells with specific functions for various parts of the body, and can reduce inflammation, repair, renew, regenerate, and replace damaged cells.

BENEFITS OF OUR TREATMENTS OUR TREATMENTS

Stem Cell Research

HOW IT WORKS? WORKS?

The potential role of MSCs in the regeneration of pancreatic β-cell mass and in controlling diabetic microvascular complications.

Type 1 diabetes

  • Replaces the damaged pancreatic β-cells through direct differentiation
  • Alter the pancreatic microenvironment to allow endogenous regeneration of pancreatic β-cells
  • Stop autoimmunity activity towards pancreatic β-cells
  • MSCs secrete growth factors that play an important role in the pancreatic repair and functional improvement through paracrine effects
  • MSCs also prevent apoptosis of injured pancreatic cells besides enhancing regeneration of endogenous progenitor cells
Type 2 diabetes
  • Have the ability to differentiate into insulin producing cells
  • Can induce the islet cells regeneration process
  • Provide protection to the endogenous islet cells
  • Can improve the body’s insulin resistance

The mechanism by which MSCs act on type 2 diabetes.

TALK TO US

​If you feel we might be able to offer meaningful improvement to both your condition and your quality of life, then please reach out to schedule a free consultation with one of our in-house clinical experts. We offer consultations in both Malay and English. 

To schedule your consultation, click the button below

​During your consultation, we will: we will:

Review your medical history & recent evaluations

Explore what your treatment package might look like​

Answer any questions you have about us

Answer any questions you have about the therapies

Discuss practical next steps, ​if you feel we can effectively treat you

Review your medical history & recent evaluations

Explore what your treatment package might look like​

Answer any questions you have about us

Answer any questions you have about the therapies

Discuss practical next steps,
​if you feel we can effectively treat you